Mt. Leuser National Park


Gov. RegulationDecree of Ministry of Environment and Forestry Number 103/MenLHK-II/2015
Date… … 2015
Large (Hektar)1.094.692
Technical implementation UnitBalai Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser
NoteMt Leuser National Park is established by the Government of Indonesia as a national nature reserve since 1980, then determined by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve (2004).Based on Indonesia-Malaysia cooperation, it is also designated as “Sister Parks” with State Park of National Park (Malaysia).

As the basis of legality in the series of forest area inauguration process has been issued Decree of the Minister of Forestry Number 276 / Kpts-II / 1997 on the Appointment of Mt Leuser National Park covering 1,094,692 hectares located in the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra. In the decision mentioned that Mt Leuser National Park consists of:

  • Mt Leuser Wildlife Reserve: 416,500 hectares
  • Kluet Wildlife Reserve: 20,000 hectares
  • West Langkat Wildlife Sanctuary: 51,000 hectares
  • Langkat Selatan Wildlife Reserve: 82,985 hectares
  • Sekundur Wildlife Reserve: 60,600 hectares
  • Kappi Wildlife Reserve: 142,800 hectares
  • Gurah Tourist Park: 9,200 hectares
  • Protection Forest and Limited Production Forest: 292,707 hectares


  1. Nangroe Aceh Darussalam;
  2. Sumatera Utara
City/Regency1.1 Kabupaten Aceh Barat Daya; 1.2 Kabupaten Aceh Selatan; 1.3 Kabupaten Aceh Singkil; 1.4 Kabupaten Aceh Tenggara; 1.5 Kabupaten Gayo Lues; 1.6 Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang;

2.1 Kabupaten Dairi; 2.2 Kabupaten Karo; 2.3 Kabupaten Langkat



Elevation (mDpl);
Topology&Geology (mDpl);
Most areas have steep topography and soil structure and texture that are prone to landslides…
– ;
rate 21’–28’C; Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…



Mt Leuser; Mt Kembar; Mt Bandahara; Mt. Mugajah; Mt. Perkison; Mt. Sibuatan;
Laut Bangko Lake; –
 Alas River; watershed of Jambo Aye; watershed of Tamiang-Langsa; watershed of Singkil; watershed of Sikulat-Tripa; watershed of Baru-Kluet; watershed of Besitang; watershed of Lepan; watershed of Wampu Sei Ular.


EndemikJohannesteijsmannia altifrons, Rafflesia atjehensis (rafflesia Aceh flower) and Raflesia micropylora (raflesia flower), Rhizanthes zippelnii, fig or strangler plants, nephentes.
IdentificationVan Steenis conducted the research in 1937 (de Wilde W.J.J.O and B.E.E. Duyfjes, 1996), dividing the plant areas in Gunung Leuser National Park in several zones, namely:

  1. Tropical Zone (including Colline zone, located 500 – 1000 mdpl). Tropical Zone is a heavily forested area covered by various types of wooden stands with large diameter and height up to 40 meters. The tree or wooden stand is used as a tree of liana plants and interesting epiphytes, such as orchids, and others.
  2. The transition zone from the Tropica Zone to the Colline Zone and the Sub-Montane Zone is characterized by an increasing number of beautiful and distinct flowering plants due to altitude differences. The higher a place the more trees are reduced, the liana type begins to disappear and more and more rattan species are found.
  3. Montane Zone (including sub montane zone, located 1000 – 1500 mdpl). The montane zone is a montane forest. Wood stands are no longer too high only ranging from 10 to 20 meters. There is no more liana plant species. Moss covered many wooden or tree stands. The humidity of the air is very high and almost every time it is covered in fog.
  4. Sub Alphine Zone (2900 – 4200 mdpl), is an Ercacoid forest zone and no longer trees. This forest is a thick layer of mixture of dwarf trees and shrubs with some towering umbrella trees (families Ericacae) as well as some types of tundra, orchids and moss.

Almost the entire area of Gunung Leuser National Park is covered or dominated by Dipterocarpaceae forest in Tropical Zone.

Orchid: Species of Orchid Forest in Telagah Village Gunung Leuser National Park Langkat Regency is one type of lowland rainforest in North Sumatra which based on field observations has high macroepifit diversity. This forest has tall trees and moist air that is a suitable habitat for epiphytic growth. Yulinda (2004) reported that in Tangkahan National Park, Gunung Leuser National Park, Langkat regency, there are 47 types of macroepifit belonging to 4 classes, 10 orders, 20 families, and 32 genera.

The family of Orchidaceae is the most numerous family of species found in 9 species, followed by 6 species of Polypodiaceae family, 4 species Aspleniaceae family, Davalliaceae family of 2 species, Lomariopsidaceae family, Nephrolepidaceae, Zingiberaceae, Melastomataceae, and Lindsaeaceae 1 each type.

The high number of species of the Orchidaceae family is probably due to abiotic factors that are appropriate for its growth and development, with temperatures of 21.3′ C still good enough for the types of orchids to grow.

Pewarta (1981) states that this condition is still within the appropriate temperature range for orchid growth that is between 21-35′ C. Anwar et al. (1984) states that the orchid seeds are usually easily dispersed by squirrels or birds, quite resistant against direct sunlight, and rapid growth of seedlings. This causes the species of orchids have a wide spread. Furthermore Comber (2001) added that the family Orchidaceae in Sumatra including the most types of which there are 1111 species. According to Rifai (1993), that the number of species of orchids that live as epiphytes in mountainous wilderness trees is very large, especially from the types of Bulbophyllum. Monk et al., (2000), states that in the lower mountain forests found many epiphytic orchids, especially Corybas orchids, Corymborkis, and Malaxis. Ruhana (2003), reported that there are 25 genus (70 species) of epiphytic orchids at the Ketambe Ekosistem Leuser Research Station.

It is estimated there are about 3,500 species of flora.

more search needed ……

Overview of flora in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam&North Sumatra
Tree===> click here
Non Tree===> click here
Coral===> click here


IdentificationMammalia: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran rhino), Elephas maximus sumatrae, Panthera tigris sumatrae, Neofelis nebulosa (tiger), Cuon Alpinus (ajag / a dog), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor),…Primates: Pongopygmaeus abelii (Orangutan sumatra), Sarudung / owa (Hylobates lar), Siamang (Hylobates syndactilus syndactilus), Apes (Macaca fascicularis), Beruk (Macaca nemestriana) and Kedih (Presbytis thomasi)…


Birds: Buceros bicornis (hornbill boards),…

Fish: jurung fish (Tor sp),…

more search needed …

Overview of fauna in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam&North Sumatra
Amfibi===> click here
Bird===> click here
Fish===> click here
Insect===> click here
Mammalia===> click here
Primata===> click here
Reptil===> click here
Invertebrata===> click here


  1.; Juli 2017
  2.; Juli 2017
  3.; Juli 2017
  4.; Juli 2017
  1. Statistik Dirjen KSDAE 2018; Dirjen KSDAE (Link:
  2. Statistik Dirjen KSDAE 2017; Dirjen KSDAE (Link:
  3. Statistik Dirjen KSDAE 2016; Dirjen KSDAE (Link:
  4. Statistik Dirjen KSDAE 2015; Dirjen KSDAE (Link:
  5. Pride Campaign tahun 2008-2010 Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser Wilayah Besitang, Sumatera Utara oleh Ismail S.Hut (link:;
  6. Ekosistem Leuser di Provinsi Aceh sebagai laboratorium alam yang menyimpan kekayaan biodiversitas untuk diteliti dalam rangka pencarian bahan baku obat-obatan oleh Djufri 2015 (link:
  8. Jenis – Jenis Anggrek yang Terdapat di Sumatera Utara; Khairiah, Novia Chairuman dan Muhammad Fadly, Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Sumatera Utara, 2012(
  9. …?

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