|During the 20th and 21st centuries, Mount Bromo has erupted many times, at regular intervals of 30 years. The largest eruption occurred in 1974, while the last eruption occurred in 2016-present.|
History of Bromo eruption: 2015-2016, 2011, 2010, 2004, 2001, 1995, 1984, 1983, 1980, 1972, 19, 1915, 1907, 1908, 1907, 1906, 1907, 1896, 1893, 1890, 1888, 1886, 1887, 1886, 1885, 1886, 1885, 1877, 1867, 1868, 1866, 1865, 1865, 1860, 1858, 1858, 1858, 1857, 1856, 1844, 1843, 1843, 1835, 1830, 1830, 1829, 1825, 1822, 1823, 1820, 1815, 1804, 1775
|Generally the Strombolian eruption type. The eruption of Bromo is explosive by throwing bombs of volcano, lapilli, sand, and ash which generally affects only around the top. Historically, Bromo has never recorded the flow of lava.|
Throughout history, the eruptive character is effusive and explosive from the central crater, whenever eruptions erupt with ash, sand, lapilli, and occasionally catapult lava and volcanic bombs, except for the 1980 activity, at the bottom of the crater a lava plug is formed.
Activities of Mount Bromo at this time generally in the form of gusts of thin white smoke to white thick with a height of about 50 m to 100 m from the crater lip with the direction of blowing generally trending west and northwest. The condition of the smoke of Mount Bromo usually increases when there is high rainfall. It is also related to the eruption characteristic of a phreatic eruption which is the result of contact between magma and the hydrothermal system in place.
The period of eruption can be short-lived only a few days (12 to 14 June 1860), but can also last a month or more continuously. Bromo eruption volcano eruption erratic is the shortest rest period less than a year while the longest rest period of 16 years.
|The Tengger Mountains have a long history of volcanoes, starting from 1.4 million years ago (Mulyadi, 1992). The volcano experts named these mountains with the Bromo – Tengger Complex, composed of several volcanic bodies with the main eruption center forming an arc. At the time of its growth, explosive and effusive activities had formed the Nongkojajar cone (1.4 0.2 million years ago), the Ngadisari Cone (822 90 thousand years ago), the Old Tengger Cone (265 40 thousand years ago), the Concish Mask ( unknown age) and Cemoro Lawang Cone (144 – 135 30 thousand years ago).|
In large explosive activities, the cones are partially destroyed and the caldera is formed with the oldest sequence to the young as follows:
1. Nongkojajar caldera
2. Kaldera Ngadisari
3. Kiriera Kebiri, and
4. Ocean Sand Crater
The cone of Bromo Volcano is the only post-caldera Sea Sand post center that still exhibits volcanic activity to date. Some cones are inside the Sea of Sand caldera but are no longer active…