Bunaken Marine National Park


Gov.RegulationDecree of The minister of forestry No 730/Kpts-II/1991
DateOktober 15, 1991
Large (Hektar)89.065,00
Technical implementation UnitBalai Taman Nasional Bunaken
NoteAppointed by Decree of the Minister of Forestry Number 730 / Kpts-II / 91, dated 15 October 1991 of 89.065. Prior to the existence of the administrative division area is located in the City of Manado and Kabupaten Minahasa. After the establishment of administrative area is located in the City of Manado, Minahasa Regency, North Minahasa Regency, and South Minahasa Regency.

The Zoning System based on the Decree of the Director General of PHPA No. 147 / Kpts / DJ-VI / 1997 consists of Core Zone of 1,391.05 ha, Utilization Zone of 1,153.34 ha, 191.98 Rehabilitation Zone, Recovery Zone of 26.27 ha, Water Support Zone of 11,680.31 ha, Mainland Support Zone of 2,342.29 ha, and Public Support Zone of 72,279.77.

The park is located in the Coral Triangle, a habitat for 390 species of coral reefs as well as various species of fish, mollusks, reptiles and marine mammals. Bunaken National Park is representative of Indonesia’s marine ecosystems, covering seagrass meadows, coral reefs and coastal ecosystems.

This national park was established in 1991 and covers an area of ​​890.65 km ². 97% of the national park is a marine habitat, while the remaining 3% is land, covering five islands: Bunaken, Manado Tua, Mantehage, Naen and Siladen.


ProvincePropinsi Sulawesi Utara
  1. Kodya Menado
  2. Kabupaten Minahasa Utara
District1.1 Kecamatan Bunaken; 1.2 Kecamatan Bunaken Kepulauan

2.1 Kecamatan Wori

Desa1.1.1 Kelurahan Alung Banua; 1.1.2 Kelurahan Bunaken; 1.1.3 Kelurahan Manado Tua Dua; 1.1.4 Kelurahan Manado Tua Satu

1.2.1 Kelurahan Bailang; 1.2.2 Kelurahan Meras; 1.2.3 Kelurahan Molas; 1.2.4 Kelurahan Tongkeina; 1.2.5 Kelurahan Pandu 

2.1.1 Desa Mantehage; 2.1.2 Pulau Naeng Besar


Elevation (mDpl)
the mountainous topography often affects local rainfall, especially the total amount of rain even in close proximity …
type climate  – (Schmidt&Ferguson)
-; Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Council check…





IdentificationMangrove (Mangrove); The mangrove species identified in the Bunaken National Park are 30 species (Merril and Davie, 1996). Extensive mangroves are on the island of Mantehage, the coast of Arakan – Wawontulap and part of the Molas – Wori coast. On the islands of Bunaken, Manado Tua, Siladen and Nain there are also mangroves with minimal area. Mangrove with a height of 30 meters, which hundreds of years old can be found in the waters between Wawontulap – Popareng precisely in the separate mangrove area that forms the island and is known by the name of Tatapaan Island. The dominant tree species is Rhizophora sp. (local language: Lolaro); Avicennia sp. (local language: Fire-fire) and Sonneratia sp. (local language: Posi-posi).

Seagrass (Sea Grass); The type of seagrass found in the Bunaken National Park area is Halophyla ovata; Halophyla ovalis; Cymodocea rotundata; Cymodocea semulata; Syringodium isoetifolium; Thalassodendron sp .; Thalassia hempricii and Enhalus acoroides. Seagrass that is fertile enough around Arakan-Wawontulap waters, around the island of Nain and part of Mantehage island. The area of ​​seagrass beds around the Arakan-Wawontulap waters is about 1,300 hectares while the area on the island of Nain reaches 1,000 hectares. The most dominant types are Thalassia hempricii and Enhalus acoroides while on the island of Nain and Mantehage island which is more open with waves of shimmings of the typical teredapat Thalassodendron ciliatum.

Seaweed (Algae); Besides being the main source of food for damselfish and surgeonfish type fish, algae also have a high economic value because it can be used for various materials such as binders, adhesives, crystallization inhibitors, dyes, purifiers, and others. Type Eucheuma spp. widely breeded by the inhabitants of Nain island as their primary livelihood.

Coastal and Terrestrial Plants; Types of beach plants that are found is a kind of bitung (Barringtonia asiatica) is a broad-leaved tree with white flowers smell nice. In addition there are also many pandanus (Pandanas sp.) And ketapang trees that many people planted as shade trees from the sun. Many other types of grasses and other creeping plants. In general, the original land-based population in the Bunaken National Park area has changed considerably due to the clearing of plantation land, fields or settlement land. Native plants such as bamboo, woka (Livistona rotundifolia), rattan (Calamus spp.), Nira (Arenga sp.), And banyan (Ficus spp.) Have been largely replaced by agricultural crops such as coconut, banana, walnut, cassava, , cloves, chocolate, eggplant, chili, corn and fruit trees such as mango. However, on the peak of the island of Manado Tua there are still tropical forest ecosystems such as Macaranga mappa and Piper aduncum.

more search required …?

Overview of flora in North Sulawesi
Tree===> click here
Non Tree===> click here
Coral===> click here


IdentificationFish; It is estimated that there are 2000 species of fish within the Bunaken National Park whose life depends on coral reefs (Mehta, 1999). Among them are: butterfly fish (Forcipiger longirostris, Chaetodon kleinii, Hemitaurichthys polylepis), parrots, coolies, fairy fish, red toothpick fish, bannerfishes, damsel fish, sharks (Taimura lymma, Aetobatus narinari), sea eels (Gymnothorax javanicus, Rhinomuraena quaesita), catfish (Plotosus lineatus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), buntal fish, soldier fish (Myripristis murdjan), pygmy special kate horses (hippocampus sp), chicken lepu, lolosi fish, lionfish (Pterois volitans), flutemouths (Aulostomus chinensis), groupers (Epinephelus merra, E. fasciatus, E. lancelatus, Cromileptes altivelis, Anyperodon leucogrammicus, Aethaloperca rogaa, Cephalopholis miniata, C. argus, C. urodeta) napoleon, fairy basslets, or anthias (Pseudanthias pleurotaenia, Pseudanthias squammipinnis), barracuda, cardinal fish (Apogon novemfasciatus), fish bobara (Gnathanodon speciosus, Caranx melampygus, Selaroides nigrofasciata, S. leptolepis), t rout (Variola louti), gobies, etc.

The strange species of fish caught in the Bunaken National Park are the Raja Laut Laut (Latimeria menadoensis) found in 1998 in front of the waters of Manado Tua Island.

Molluska; There are several types of mollusks in the area of ​​Bunaken National Park which each type has its own uniqueness. Kima kima Giant (Tridacna gigas) is the largest type of shell that can grow up to 1.5 meters in length with a life span of up to 200 years. Molluskas found in the region include Gastropods including sea slugs, cone snails, nudibrancia, finger shells, Cowri shells and Cepalopoda including squid, rock squid, squid screens (Nautilus pompillus) and blue ring octopus (Hapalochlaena maculose). In general they live in deep waters with a fairly cold water temperature along the tube.

Reptiles; Other types of reptiles to date have not been much detailed and definite information about other types of reptiles in the Bunaken National Park area other than lizards (lizards) or some types of snakes either venomous or non-venomous.

Ecinodermata; The types of ecinoderms found in Bunaken National Park are Sea Star, including Star of Thorny Sea (Acanthaster planci), Snake Star, Babi Pig Raja, Teripang, and Lili Laut.


Land Mammals; Wild mammals are still commonly found in the Bunaken National Park area. On the island of Manado Tua there is a population of black macaques (Macaca nigra) and cuscus (Phalanger celebensis). As on the island Mantehage according to the information society sometimes still found deer and tarsius. There are also some bats, weasels and black rats.

Black monkeys are endemic to Sulawesi and are categorized endangered species and are listed in Appendix II of CITES. In the Bunaken National Park this type of population is found on the island of Manado Tua.

Tarsius (Tarsius spectrum) is classified as primitive primate with a body weight of about 10 grams. Has a big eye that can see clearly in the dark and very sensitive ears. Their necks can rotate 1800. The length of its hind legs is twice as high as its body; this makes it easy to jump from tree to tree. In the area of ​​Bunaken National Park, they can be found on the island of Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage and Manembo-nembo Wildlife Reserve bordering the southern part of Bunaken National Park area.

There are at least 30 species of seabirds within the Bunaken National Park area. Many species of birds are nesting and feeding within the Area, especially the Sea Seagull, the Sea Swamp Crane and the catcher. While the types of land birds such as sparrows, drongi, crows and owls are also found in the area of ​​Bunaken National Park.

Marine Mammals; Types of marine mammals that can be found in the area of ​​Bunaken National Park are dugongs, whales and dolphins. Dugongs (Dugong-dugon) are found around the Arakan-Wawontulap waters area filled with seagrass beds. Whales and dolphins are categorized in the Cetacean family. there are at least 14 species that can be found in the Bunaken National Park area including 7 species of dolphins: Long Nose Dolphin (Stenella longirostris), Bottleneck Bottom (Tursiops truncatus), Ordinary Dolphins (Delphinus sp.), Risso dolphins (Grampus griseus), Fraser dolphins (Lagenodelphishosei), Large dolphin dolphins (Steno bredanensis) and Pantropis dolphins (Stenellaattenuata); 5 species of blackfish “Killer Whales, Fake Killer Whales, kate Killer Whales, Melon Head Whales and Short Fins Pilot Whales. As well as 2 types of large toothed whales are Blue Whale and Sperm Whale Kate.

more search required…?

overview of fauna in North Sulawesi
Amfibian===> click here
Bird===> click here
Fish===> click here
Insect===> click here
Mammalia===> click here
Primata===> click here
Reptil===> click here
Invertebrata===> click here


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